Barriers to Battery Electric Vehicle Adoption in 2023

At a Glance

The electric vehicle (EV) revolution is well underway, but in 2023, it's evident that there are still roadblocks preventing widespread adoption. While EVs offer numerous benefits, from environmental sustainability to lower operating costs, several challenges persist. In this article, we'll explore the key hurdles that continue to affect EV adoption in 2023.

The global automotive landscape is undergoing a profound transformation, and at the forefront of this revolution stands the electric vehicle (EV). In 2023, the EV market is rapidly growing, with an increasing number of automakers committing to electrification and governments around the world setting ambitious targets to reduce carbon emissions. The promises of EVs are undeniably compelling: reduced greenhouse gas emissions, lower operating costs, and a cleaner, sustainable future for transportation. Yet, despite the evident advantages, significant challenges persist, hindering the widespread adoption of EVs. The International Energy Agency predicts that EVs will represent 60% of vehicles sold globally by 2030. For context, a total of 14% of all new cars sold were electric in 2022, up from around 9% in 2021 and less than 5% in 2020.

In this era of environmental consciousness and technological advancement, the EV market is poised for unprecedented growth. However, as we'll explore in this article, several formidable roadblocks stand in the way of fully embracing electric mobility on a global scale in 2023. These challenges extend beyond the engineering hurdles and delve into economic, infrastructural, and societal dimensions. Understanding these obstacles is essential for charting a course toward a future where EVs are the norm rather than the exception.

Join us on a journey through the dynamic world of EVs, as we delve into the intricacies of the EV market and dissect the multifaceted barriers that continue to shape its trajectory. From high initial costs and range anxiety to charging infrastructure limitations and battery technology challenges, the path to widespread EV adoption is laden with hurdles. However, it's in overcoming these very challenges that we unlock the potential for a more sustainable and environmentally friendly transportation system. So, fasten your seatbelts as we navigate the terrain of the EV market, exploring the obstacles and opportunities that define this exciting frontier of modern mobility.

High Upfront Costs

One of the most significant barriers to EV adoption for consumers remains the initial purchase price. While advancements in technology have made EVs more affordable, they are still overall more expensive than their Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) counterparts. As of March 2023, the average transaction price for a new vehicle (including both EV & ICE) stood at US$48,008, while the average electric vehicle cost was roughly 23% more expensive at US$58,940. In regions such as the United States, various incentives are put in place to aid in reducing costs of purchasing an EV. The EV Tax Credit for Americans, originally set to expire by the end of 2022 has been renewed for 2023 and includes a US$7,500 credit towards a purchase of a brand-new EV, as well as a 30% credit (capped at US$4,000) for used EVs. By applying this US$7,500 EV Tax Credit, the average purchase cost for a brand-new EV reclines to roughly US$51,440 reducing the upfront cost gap to only US$3,432 or ~7% more compared to the average purchase cost of all new vehicle purchases.

While the costs of vehicles seem to be continuously climbing, many automakers such as Tesla, Chevrolet, and Hyundai have been able to find ways of slashing base model prices every year, by reducing manufacturing costs within the powertrain by introducing more efficient technology advancements. For example, Tesla’s Model 3 base version has dropped by US$3,000 for a starting price of US$43,990, as of January 2023.

According to a study from the University of Michigan’s Transportation Research Institute, the average operating costs for an electric vehicle was $485/year of electricity, compared to $1,117/year of fuel for a gas-powered vehicle. Not only are fuel costs significantly less with an EV, but maintenance costs also tend to be less than traditional ICE vehicles as well as they have fewer mechanical parts, resulting in components that last longer. According to Consumer Reports, the lifetime repair and maintenance costs for a BEV powertrain is $4,600 compared to $9,200 for an ICE powertrain. For instance, because most EV braking is regenerative, they utilize motor spin and power electronics to reduce the vehicle speed and capture that energy in the battery. This mitigates the need for friction stops using brake pads, thus the brakes in an EV can last over 300,000 km (~186,411 miles) and require far less maintenance. On top of reduced operating costs, regenerative braking leads to reduced energy waste which is far more efficient and better for the environment.

Overall, while the high upfront cost of EVs tend to scare consumers in the short, the savings from incentive programs, and operating costs will save you in the long run. With advancements in efficient powertrain technology, OEMs are also able to reduce EV base model prices to reduce the barrier to entry for consumers looking to make an impact in reaching net-zero projections by transitioning to cleaner methods of transportation.

Battery Technology

In the rapidly evolving landscape of EVs, the heart of the revolution lies within the lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery technology. In the year 2022, this technology experienced a staggering 65% global increase in demand, surging to an impressive 550 GWh from 330 GWh in 2021. This surge was primarily attributed to the meteoric rise in electric passenger vehicle sales, which registered a remarkable 55% growth in 2022 compared to the preceding year. The United States witnessed even higher demand growth for batteries with astounding 80% increase in battery demand. This impressive surge in Li-ion batteries is a result of not only thriving consumer demand, however the average battery size for BEVs in the United States increased by around 7% in the same year to combat EV challenges such as range anxiety, requiring more lithium per unit. Nevertheless, the average battery size in the U.S. remains about 40% higher than the global average. This discrepancy is influenced by the higher prevalence of SUVs in U.S. electric car sales and manufacturers' strategies to offer longer all-electric driving ranges to meet North American consumer preferences.

As battery demand surges, it drives the demand for critical materials, notably lithium, cobalt, and nickel. In 2022, lithium demand outstripped supply, despite a 180% increase in production since 2017. An astounding 60% of lithium, 30% of cobalt, and 10% of nickel demand was directed towards EV batteries in 2022, marking a substantial shift from just five years earlier when these shares were significantly lower. This escalating demand for critical minerals underscores the urgent need to expand mining and processing efforts to support the energy transition not only for EVs but also for clean energy technologies at large. Even more importantly, reducing reliance on such critical materials and promoting supply chain sustainability through innovation, repurposing and recycling will be crucial for the industry's resilience and security.

As the demand for batteries continues to surge, driven by the rapid growth of the EV market, there arises a pressing need to address what happens to these batteries once they've reached the end of their useful life. EV batteries, influenced by factors like operation, temperature, and environmental conditions, exhibit a gradual loss of capacity and performance over time, commonly referred to as battery degradation. In fact, Exro’s recent ‘Battery Degradation’ article explores how EV batteries typically have a useful life of around 10 years. However, emerging advancements in battery control technologies and the rise of stationary battery energy storage systems present a promising solution for extending battery life.

Exro Technologies, a leading clean technology company, stands at the forefront of these efforts to tackle end-of-life battery concerns. Exro’s innovative solutions not only mitigate environmental impacts but also offer users residual value at the end of the battery's first life, effectively driving down costs associated with battery replacement. Additionally, repurposing batteries for second-life applications reduces the demand for new mining activities, aligning with sustainability goals and reducing the environmental footprint of the EV industry. As we look ahead, these developments in battery innovation and reuse promise to shape a more sustainable and economically viable future for electric mobility.

As we delve further into the complexities of the EV market, it becomes evident that the demand for batteries and the associated challenges extend beyond technology and into the realms of material availability, cost dynamics, and global supply chains. These intricacies shape the path toward widespread EV adoption, prompting the industry to innovate and adapt to overcome these formidable hurdles.

Boost your EV range or downsize battery packs without sacrificing range.
Boost your EV range or downsize battery packs without sacrificing range.

EV Range & Performance

EVs have made significant strides in recent years, offering cleaner and more sustainable transportation options. However, despite the numerous advantages they bring to the table, there are still performance challenges that influence consumer perceptions and adoption rates.

Range anxiety is a persistent concern for potential EV buyers and can be a significant barrier to widespread adoption. This term refers to the fear or apprehension that an EV driver may experience when they are uncertain about whether their vehicle can complete a trip without running out of battery charge. While range anxiety remains a concern for most EV consumers and fleets, the average driving range of BEVs worldwide have continuously increased over recent years, from 243 km (~151 miles) in 2017 to 349 km (217 miles) in 2021. Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) are continuously examining ways to re-engineer and optimize the powertrain in order to increase the battery efficiency or capacity on EVs to improve vehicle range.

During cold winter months, EVs are known to experience range loss. AAA found that on average, EVs experienced a 12% decrease in combined driving range at an ambient temperature of 20°F (-7°C) and an 8% decrease of combined equivalent fuel economy, compared to testing conducted at 75°F (24°C). Not only does cold temperature reduce driving range for EVs, researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory found that colder weather increased charging times considerably. Using a DCFC charger, an EV battery could be charged to 80% of its capacity in 30 minutes when the temperature was 77°F (25°C), based on the study analyzing a fleet of Nissan Leaf operating as taxis. However, the battery's state of charge was 36% lower at 32°F (0°C) after the same period of time.

The reason why EVs experience operational challenges in colder temperatures is primarily because chemical and physical reactions within the battery occur at a slower pace. This results in a reduction of the EV's power output, as cold temperatures impede these chemical reactions and introduce resistance that hampers the physical processes. EVs also employ highly efficient motors that generate less wasted heat energy than ICE used in traditional vehicles which are notably inefficient since only a portion (35-40%) of their energy translates into forward propulsion. When confronted with cold conditions, ICE vehicles redirect this wasted heat energy from the engine to warm the vehicle's cabin, enhancing passenger comfort, meanwhile the limited available motor heat in EVs is directed toward warming the EV's battery, leaving the cabin heating reliant to draw excess energy from the battery power, thereby reducing the amount of battery capacity available for driving.

One common misconception about EVs is related to their acceleration and power capabilities. While it's true that early passenger EV models may have been perceived as lacking in this department, modern passenger EVs are rewriting the script. Electric motors deliver instant torque, resulting in rapid acceleration and impressive power delivery. Many high-performance EV models can rival or even surpass their gasoline-powered counterparts in terms of acceleration. Nevertheless, the lingering perception of EVs as underpowered persists and can deter consumers who prioritize performance in their vehicles.

For commercial businesses and EV fleet owners, range anxiety is a major obstacle to overcome, as operating schedules and duty cycles may get punished as a result of frequent charging stops. Aside from range anxiety, certain commercial applications also face challenges in finding the optimal tradeoff between low-speed torque and high-speed power and efficiency. Many vehicles require high starting torque to move the load or operate auxiliary systems such as a lift on a commercial vehicle, though they also require high power to reach top highway speeds while operating efficiently. This has become a challenge for certain applications, and the sector is currently relying on old tricks from the gasoline era to solve these challenges such as introducing 2-speed gearboxes for buses and long-haul trucks. At Exro, we are rethinking the EV architecture and operation. We have developed the revolutionary Coil Driver™, a traction inverter which enables 2 different operating modes (series and parallel) in a single electric motor. This introduces gearing through power electronics, allowing commercial vehicles to achieve both the initial high torque and power requirements throughout the speed range without sacrificing efficiency. These key strides help accelerate the adoption of EVs across all applications, optimizing the e-mobility sector and shaping a greener future.

Charging Infrastructure

Predominant factors to consider when it comes to EV charging infrastructure challenges include charging speeds, charging costs, and charging accessibility. Adequate charging infrastructure is a linchpin for the widespread adoption of electric vehicles. It enhances the convenience, range confidence, and practicality of EVs, making them a viable and attractive choice for a broader range of consumers and driving the transition to cleaner, more sustainable transportation.

While research from the Department of Energy suggest that 80% of passenger EV owners charge their vehicles overnight at home, the availability of public Direct Current Fast Charging (DCFC) stations is critical for facilitating longer journeys and accommodating commercial vehicles for which depot-charging overnight would not be feasible. Whether it's due to the vehicle's duty cycle, which demands it to be operational in a short amount of time, or its battery capacity, which requires charging for extended periods of time. This emphasises the need for a comprehensive network of DC fast chargers. Unlike AC charging, DCFC avoids the limits of on-board chargers, instead sending direct DC power to the battery. DC fast charging is critical for long-distance drivers such as long-haul trucks and large vehicle fleets, especially in rural areas where access to EV charging stations is scarce. It allows drivers to recharge their vehicles while on the road, providing a convenient alternative to the overnight or lengthy charging sessions required for a full battery recharge.

The number of publicly accessible fast chargers increased by 330,000 globally in 2022, with China accounting for nearly 90% of this growth. Fast chargers, especially those along motorways, support longer journeys and alleviate range anxiety, a barrier to EV adoption. China has a total of 760,000 fast chargers, with the majority concentrated in ten provinces. Europe had over 70,000 fast chargers by the end of 2022, with Germany, France, and Norway having the largest stocks. In the United States, 6,300 fast chargers were installed in 2022, mainly Tesla Superchargers, bringing the total to 28,000. The US is poised for accelerated deployment through the National Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Formula Program, with US$ 885 million allocated for 2023 to expand chargers across 122,000 km (~75,807 miles) of highway.

In order to meet climate objectives in the EU and adapt to EV consumer demand, the EU-27 will need at least 3.4 million functioning public charging points by 2030, even in the most conservative scenario. This necessitates major utility grid modifications to transfer electricity to these stations while also supporting greater renewable energy capacity for greener power. By 2030, the total cost of infrastructure development could exceed €240 billion. Meeting the need for charging stations, system upgrades, and renewable energy integration are among the hurdles. By 2030, the infrastructure rollout, which includes new charging stations, grid improvements, and capacity for renewable energy, could cost €240 billion. Government support is essential for ensuring an equal rollout that makes reasonable charges available to everyone, including in regions that are less lucrative.

While the transition to e-mobility represents a significant step towards cleaner and more sustainable transportation, the availability and accessibility of charging infrastructure present substantial barriers to widespread adoption. The challenges in scaling up charging infrastructure include the need for substantial investments, coordination among stakeholders, regulatory adjustments, and equitable access, must not be underestimated. These barriers need to be addressed proactively to ensure that charging infrastructure evolves in tandem with the increasing adoption of EVs.

The Future Landscape

While significant strides are being made to accelerate the development of electrification in the mobility sector, Exro’s involvement underlines the significance of developing efficient and result-driven, innovative technologies. In the pursuit of improving EV performance and efficiency, Exro has introduced innovative solutions that have the potential to mitigate some of the most significant barriers to EV adoption. At the heart of Exro's groundbreaking contributions is the Coil Driver™, a smart motor controller equipped with advanced power electronics. This marvel of intelligent power electronics technology optimizes the entire EV powertrain system, effectively improving system efficiency and reducing the total system cost. With the Coil Driver™ in place, vehicle manufacturers gain the flexibility to streamline their designs, removing the need for additional motors, mechanical gearboxes, and even components like on-board chargers. This simplification not only enhances efficiency but also significantly cuts costs, making EVs more affordable for consumers.

Exro's commitment to addressing the challenges of electrification doesn't stop with the vehicle itself. As EVs continue to proliferate, the issue of battery disposal and second-life applications becomes increasingly critical. Exro's Cell Driver™ offers a game-changing solution. Typically, the battery cells in an EV reach the end of their life within 8-12 years. However, with Exro's Energy Storage System (ESS), equipped with the patented Battery Control System™ (BCS), these batteries can be optimized and repurposed for second-life stationary storage applications. This not only extends the lifespan of batteries but also introduces opportunities for consumers to monetize their batteries at the end of their initial use, further reducing the total cost of EV ownership.

In a landscape where high upfront costs, battery technology, EV performance, and charging infrastructure are some of the major barriers to widespread EV adoption, Exro Technologies emerges as a beacon of hope. Our intelligent control solutions are pioneering the path toward a smarter, more sustainable world. By addressing these formidable barriers head-on, Exro is not just advancing the EV industry; we are paving the way for a future where electric vehicles are more accessible, affordable, and environmentally friendly than ever before.

Learn about Exro's Coil Driver™ Traction Inverter

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